This dissertation is titled Nationalism, Pancasila and Islam as the National Principle of the Unitary State of Republic of Indonesia (NKRI) (The Analysis of Mohammad Natsir’s Conception). The research found two types of nationalism development in Indonesia namely “secular nationalism” as described in the conception of Soekarno and “Islamic nationalism” reflected in Mohammad Natsir’s conception. The conception of secular nationalism believes that the concept of nationalism has no relation with religion, while the second conception believes that Islam obliges its followers (Muslims) to love their homeland.
Therefore, nationalism is a part of Islam that teaches that Allah (God) creates men and women with their specific ethnics and nations in order for them to know each other more deeply and that to love the homeland is part of Islamic faith. Islam encourages its followers to know other cultures and nations without renouncing the identity as a Muslim. This is the definition of Islamic nationalism; a concept and vision saying that a state, a nation and its people should be governed by the values of Islam.
Secular nationalism group view Pancasila as the principle of state, while Islamic nationalism group fights for Islam to be applied as the national principle of the Unitary State of Republic of Indonesia. In a religion-state relation, Soekarno as the representation of the first group — the secular nationalism — firmly believes that state must be separated from religion. Meanwhile, Mohammad Natsir as the reflection of the second group — Islamic nationalism — believes that religion and state are inseparable. Despite fundamental difference of conception between the secular nationalism and the Islamic nationalism, the research comes to a conclusion that M. Natsir highly upholds the concept of Unitary State of Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). His conception, therefore, on nationalism, Pancasila, and Islam as the national principle is within the frame of upholding the Unitary State of Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). This dissertation reinforces the finding of George Mc T. Kahin (Panji Masyarakat, No. 691, August, 1991.) and refuses assumption that M. Natsir’s conception supports extremism, serparatism, and against the spirit of NKRI. It would be unreasonable to say that Islam is the factor disintegration. In fact, it is the uniting factor.
The primary sources of this dissertation are literature works written by Mohammad Natsir and other experts, documents, state archives, and other organizations. Data collected from these sources are classified and then analyzed using historical, comparative, and interdisciplinary approaches.***(Shofwan Karim)